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PRIMACYT Subcellular Fractions - Turkey

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    Turkey - Overview
    Animals like turkey have been used in vivo by researchers for decades to assess bioaccumulation, metabolism, and environmental risk of chemicals, including drugs, xenobiotics, herbicides and crop protection products.

    Assessment of bio-concentration of xenobiotics in the environment is becoming increasingly crucial for regulatory approval in the Europe Union and other regions. Recently, subcellular and cellular fish hepatic in vitro systems have provided metabolic loss rates which have been successfully used to improve bio-concentration (BCF) estimates by via extrapolation models. Subcellular systems have the advantage that they can be cryopreserved and shipped to any laboratory for testing.

    Further Application Fields

    Subcellular fractions are suitable for a variety of experiments including

    - Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Studies
    - Metabolite Characterization
    - Metabolic Stability

    S9 subcellular fractions derived from liver contain microsomes and cytosol and express a rich variety of metabolic enzymes for assessing the in vitro metabolism of drug candidates and xenobiotics (Phase I Cytochrome P450 enzymes, Flavin mono-oxygenases (FMO), UGT-glucuronyltransferases (UGT), Carboxylesterases and soluble Phase II proteins like N-acetyltransferase, Sulfotransferases (SULT), and Glutathione-S-Transferases (GST)). They are used to evaluate active pharmaceutical ingredients in human and animal health. Other applications include the environmental and toxicological assessment of agrochemicals and the evaluation of cosmetics and food additives.

    Our Competencies
    Your Primacyt Experts in Biology pertaining to the Liver

    PRIMACYT is approved by the European Commission as an EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) and serves as a member of the laboratory network responsible for the method validation.

    Our colleagues are professionals and undergo continuous training in the preparation, isolation, and cryopreservation of hepatocytes in general, including related co-products, methods, and tools. We are a GLP certified laboratory since 2006.
    Turkey Liver Subcellular Fractions
    Toxicologist are using liver fractions like microsomes from Turkey and other birds as model systems to study in vivo metabolism, bioaccumulation and the effects of agrochemicals and fungicides on biotransformation since more than 40 years. Turkey liver subcellular fractions have been use to analyze metabolism, biotransformation and toxic effects of, e.g., mycotoxins, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics.

    Developing regulatory activities (e.g., REACh) require bioaccumulation to be assessed for thousands of chemicals. On top of this, there is increasing pressure to reduce, refine and replace animal tests. This leads to an urgent need for the evaluation of in vitro systems to provide significant data for the estimation of bioaccumulation of chemicals of all kind in human and animals.

    More recently, researchers of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), DuPont Haskell, the University of Bern and Fraunhofer IME have validated trout liver S9 fractions as a reliable in-vitro system for bioaccumulation and clearances studies.

    We at Primacyt provide these in vitro systems to researchers worldwide. Here, we introduce subcellular liver fractions from Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as comparable model system to allow similar studies.
    Murcia H, Cruz A, Leon J, Gonzales-Curbelo MA: Study on the inhibitory effect of furafylline and troleandomycin in the 7-methoxyresorufin-O-demethylase and nifedipine oxidase activities in hepatic microsomes from four poultry species using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2019, 164:148-154

    Rawal S, Coulombe RA Jr: Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in turkey liver microsomes: the relative roles of Cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2011: 254:349-354

    Murcia HW, Díaz GJ, Cepeda SM: Enzymatic activity in turkey, duck, quail and chicken liver microsomes against four human cytochrome P450 prototype substrates and aflatoxin B1. J Xenobiotics, 2011, 1:e4: 17-21

    Diaz GJ, Murcia HW, Cepeda SM: Bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 by turkey liver microsomes: responsible cytochrome P450 enzymes. Brit Poult Sci, 2010, 828-837

    Our Offering
    Primacyt now offers cryopreserved turkey liver microsomes, S9 fractions, and cytosol from pooled animals. Thereby, we add a new in-vitro model system obtained from birds to our already existing portfolio of liver-derived cellular and sub-cellular in vitro systems of mammals, fish and birds. Microsomes and S9-fractions underwent a comprehensive analysis of Phase I (Cytochrome P450) and Phase II (UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase and Sulfotransferase) enzymatic activities.

    Additional Product Info
    This info refers to the product data below:
    • • Inventory: Number of vials available as of the date of the last update. Availability of vials may have changed since that date by interim orders.
    • • To print lot information, please select the print icon at the end of the lists below.
    • • For research use only. Not intended for human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.
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    Download Area MSDS
    Please click on the buttons below to download MSDS data and the Plating and Thawing Manual.

    PRIMACYT Turkey Subcellular Fractions, Subcellular Fraction, Cryopreserved, pooled.
    Your Tool for Drug Discovery and Drug Development

    For research use only. Not intended for human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.
    Product Codes TL-S9 / TL-CYT / TL-MIC

    Cryopreserved, single donor – Lot and Order Information

    - 2021 02-03

    Product No.
    Lot No.
    Protein content (mg/ml)
    Unit size (ml/vial)
    Available vials
    Euro per vial
    Turkey liver S9 fraction
    pool of 2





    Turkey liver S9 fraction
    pool of 2





    Turkey liver microsomes
    pool of 2







    Download Lot Information

    PRIMACYT provides subcellular liver fractions from human and a variety of animals for use in drug development in human and animal health. Also, liver cells and subcellular liver fractions are provided for environmental toxicology studies of herbicide and pesticide metabolism and bioaccumulation studies in birds and fish, like rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). S9 fractions and microsomes from species not listed above, e.g., turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) or Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) can be made available upon request.